The most urgent thing is to speed up the developme

2022-08-07
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The development of China's packaging machinery industry should be accelerated. Packaging machinery is a major product of China's packaging industry. It is the necessary technical equipment for the production of packaging materials and packaging products. At the same time, it is also the technical support to ensure the quality of packaging products, improve production efficiency, increase varieties and varieties, and meet the packaging functions. Therefore, although the proportion of the output value of packaging machinery in China's entire packaging industry is far less than that of packaging materials and packaging products, the technical level of packaging machinery itself is an important symbol to reflect the overall level of China's packaging industry

I. the status, role, influence and development significance of packaging machinery in the national economy and industrial economy

with the growing development of China's national economy, the packaging industry as a supporting industry has also developed rapidly at an average growth rate of 18%. The total output value of the national packaging industry has increased from 7.2 billion in 1980 to more than 2300 billion now. It undertakes the packaging task of several trillion yuan of industrial and agricultural products and hundreds of billions of dollars every year, It has made great contributions to developing the economy, invigorating the market, expanding foreign trade and improving people's living standards, and has played an important role in the development of the national economy

however, in the process of the rapid development of China's packaging industry, a large number of complete sets of equipment with high technical content are imported equipment. For example, BOPP, the most basic production equipment for plastic flexible packaging, has a production line of 100 million. However, China has introduced it since the 1970s. So far, 110 similar production lines have been introduced successively, basically provided by Bruckner of Germany and Mitsubishi of Japan; In addition, aseptic packaging boxes for fresh milk, which are widely used in the market, are almost monopolized by Tetra Pak of Sweden from the filling equipment of fresh milk to the production of special packaging materials. However, the above situation is by no means isolated in the packaging industry. No wonder an article has been written that "the supply and demand of beverage and dairy products have increased sharply, and foreign packers have rushed in", so as to call for the attention of the state and industry insiders. It is precisely because of the excessive dependence of China on foreign high-end technology in the field of packaging machinery that has become a hidden danger that seriously restricts the sustainable and stable development of China's packaging industry. Because the technical content of most packaging products is not reflected in the product itself, but in the processing technology and technical equipment. In terms of packaging technology, technology is the core and equipment is the key. The technical industrialization and production scale of the packaging industry need to be realized through the carrier of packaging machinery. Therefore, packaging equipment plays a leading role in the packaging process, which affects and determines the progress and development of the packaging industry, It is fundamental to improve the overall level of the packaging industry. It is undeniable that the introduction of a large number of advanced equipment has greatly accelerated the development of China's packaging industry and narrowed the obvious gap between China's packaging industry and developed countries. However, we can not always rely on foreign high-end technology and technical equipment, because 1. Foreign technical equipment is expensive, and some small and medium-sized enterprises are unable to introduce it, which is not conducive to the overall improvement of the technical level of China's packaging industry; 2. Without our own intellectual property rights and professional design talents, we can only follow others forever, losing the control of development and the initiative of the market; 3. Due to excessive reliance on foreign technology and equipment, some industries have almost no profit space, which has hurt the common development of related industries. Some people once calculated an account for a booming industry. From the supply of raw materials to the delivery of products, the farmers and herdsmen who provide raw materials and the manufacturers who process products only get a small part of the total profits of products, while the suppliers of packaging equipment and packaging materials are the biggest winners; 4. Facing the huge domestic packaging machinery market, foreign packaging machinery suppliers are competing for this attractive cake. Are we willing to give in and should not make it a new economic growth point in China's economic field. In view of the above reasons, and the packaging industry is a supporting industry, involving many fields of the national economy, especially the food industry and beverage industry, which depend on the technological progress and supporting services of the packaging industry. Therefore, we can no longer ignore the negative impact of the backwardness of packaging machinery on the overall development of China's packaging industry, as well as the adverse factors and far-reaching impact on the development of related fields of the national economy

II. Overview of packaging machinery in foreign developed countries in the 1980s, in order to maintain their own packaging machinery market and expand their export capacity, developed countries applied new technologies in other fields (such as microelectronics, lasers, heat pipes, new materials, etc.) to the development of packaging machinery, creating a new situation of packaging machinery and making packaging machinery one of the fields attracting attention in industrial machinery. At present, the United States, Germany, Japan and Italy are the four major countries in the world that produce packaging machinery

among them, the United States is a country with a long history of packaging machinery development in the world. It has already formed an independent and complete packaging machinery system, and its variety and output rank first in the world. For more than 10 years, the United States has always maintained its position as the world's largest producer and consumer of packaging machinery. Its products are mostly high, large, fine and advanced products. Machinery and computer are closely combined to realize electromechanical integrated control. Since the early 1990s, the packaging machinery industry in the United States has maintained a good momentum of development. Most of its products are sold domestically, and exports account for only 18% of the total output value of packaging machinery. After Canada, Mexico, Japan, Britain and Germany, China has become the sixth largest export market of packaging machinery in the United States

compared with the United States and Germany, Japan started late. The development of packaging machinery manufacturing industry has gone through the research process of introduction digestion development. It has been improved on the basis of absorbing the advantages of foreign countries. At present, Japan has become the packaging machinery manufacturing country second only to the United States in the world. Japan's packaging machinery manufacturers are mainly small and medium-sized enterprises, and there are many varieties and specifications of packaging machinery. Packaging machinery is mainly small and medium-sized single machine, which has the advantages of small volume, high precision, easy installation, convenient operation and high degree of automation. Since the 1990s, technologies such as frequency conversion adjustment, photoelectric tracking, contactless electronic switch and dynamic data display have been applied to packaging machinery. A large part of Japan's packaging machinery is used in the field of food packaging, and the output value of food packaging machinery accounts for more than half of the total output value of packaging machinery. The main market of Japanese packaging machinery is also in Japan, and the export volume only accounts for 10% of the total output value. Asia is the main export market of Japanese packaging machinery. Since the 1990s, Japan's exports to China have increased significantly year by year. Since 1995, China has become the largest exporter of Japanese packaging machinery

Germany, Italy, as well as Britain, Switzerland and France are all important countries producing packaging machinery in the world. Their common feature is that the export proportion is very large. For example, the export share of Germany and Italy is nearly 80%, and that of Switzerland is more than 90%

German packaging machinery is in a leading position in measurement, manufacturing and technical performance, especially printing machinery, beer and beverage filling equipment, which are characterized by high speed, complete set, high automation and strong reliability. Its products are well known all over the world. German packaging machinery manufacturers take the provision of complete sets of equipment as their goal, continuously improve the automation of process flow, pay attention to the flexibility and flexibility design of packaging machinery, and now widely use computer simulation technology. They are the largest exporter of packaging machinery in the world

Italy is the second largest exporter of packaging machinery after Germany, and its export scope covers more than 150 countries in the world. Italian packaging machinery is mostly used in the food industry, which has the characteristics of excellent performance, elegant appearance and low price. Since the 1990s, Italy's export of packaging machinery to China has grown rapidly. In 1995, China has jumped to the second place in Italy's export ranking

at present, countries all over the world attach great importance to the development of packaging machinery, and high-tech products integrating machinery, electricity, gas, light, biology and magnetism continue to emerge. High efficiency production, high utilization of resources, energy-saving products, high-tech practicality and commercialization of scientific research achievements have become the development trend of packaging machinery in the world

III. current situation of domestic packaging machinery for all process parameters of the extrusion process, such as melt pressure and temperature, body temperature of each section, rotating speed of main screw and feeding screw, feeding volume and problems

China's packaging machinery started late and was almost blank when new China was founded. Only a few factories or workshops produced some simple manual packaging machines and tools, or provided repair services for a few imported machines. Before the 1980s, the development was slow, and only a few low-level packaging machinery could be produced. It did not become an independent industry, and there was no packaging machinery in the product catalogue published by the state

Since the 1980s, due to the reform and opening up, China's economy has developed rapidly, and the social demand for packaging machinery has been increasing. With the government's attention and support, China's packaging machinery has developed rapidly, with an average annual growth rate of more than 30%. In the 1990s, it is still growing at a rate of more than 20%. After more than 50 years of development, China's packaging machinery has become one of the top ten industries in the machinery industry. Both product output and product varieties have made remarkable achievements, providing a strong guarantee for the rapid development of China's packaging industry. Some packaging machines have filled the gap in China and can basically meet the needs of the domestic market. Some products also guide material suppliers to continuously improve their basic R & D strength and innovation ability for export. In 2001, the national output of packaging machinery reached 533000 sets, with an output value of 19.55 billion yuan, accounting for 8.2% of the total output value of the national packaging industry. China has become one of the largest countries in the world in the production and consumption of packaging machinery

however, there are still many problems in China's packaging machinery manufacturing industry. First, there is a lack of macro-control. Due to the low starting point of packaging machinery enterprises, "congenitally deficient", and the difficulty of overall planning and macro guidance across departments and industries, packaging machinery enterprises often rush into mass action in the investment and development of new products, resulting in low-level repeated disorderly competition. The second is the lack of capital investment, which is also common in the machinery industry. It is difficult to attract a large amount of capital investment and carry out a large number of technological transformation. Due to the lack of funds, the investment in research and development accounts for less than 1% of the average sales, and it is impossible to produce, develop and research one generation at a time. As there is no technical reserve, the introduction of technology and the digestion and absorption work are not effective, so that the enterprise has few new products and lacks market competitiveness. Third, there is a lack of professional and technical personnel. Because the current profit level of the packaging machinery industry is not high, it is difficult to attract excellent technical personnel, resulting in uneven talent teams, weak ability to independently develop products and innovate, and even weak ability to digest and absorb similar foreign products. At present, the export value of China's packaging machinery is less than 5% of the total output value, but the import value is roughly equivalent to the total output value

compared with developed countries, the gap in China's packaging machinery industry is mainly reflected in the following aspects: from the perspective of product structure, there are about 2300 kinds of foreign packaging machinery, with a large number of complete sets, and new technologies and products constantly appear; However, there are only more than 1300 kinds of packaging machinery in China, with a small number of supporting equipment and a lack of high-precision and large-scale products,

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